Tag Archives: Christopher Nolan

Social Media

  • After reading this post about viral media propaganda, I can see how this could be exciting to Batman fans around the world, but the extremes that the host of this went through is unbelievable, and terrifying. Though these movies are exciting and the comics timeless one must always remember that they are in fact fiction. The reality of this situation, though it shows no reports of violence or deaths in the creation of this cosplay, it has lead to other extremes that have. And this post lead me back to the horrible memory on July 20th when a man, James Homes walked into a Colorado theater and opened fire at the premier of  The Dark Knight Rises.
  • When The Dark Knight Rises officially debuted across 4,404 US cinemas in July, some industry experts predicted a record-breaking opening weekend.  The Warner’s production had already earned almost $30 million from midnight screenings in 3,700 venues, some $11 million more than The Dark Knight (The Guardian). But it was not all glorious.

“A lone gunman walked into a midnight showing of The Dark Knight Rises in Aurora, Colorado early Friday and opened fire, killing at least 12 people and wounding 59 others before police took him into custody in a parking lot behind the theater. The shooting — the deadliest ever at a U.S. exhib — prompted Warner Bros. to cancel its Paris premiere and forced theater chains around the world to add security measures as the Batman tentpole bows this weekend at more than 4,400 theaters in the U.S. and in 17 overseas markets.”  “Police say Holmes entered through the rear doors of the Cinemark-owned Century 16 theater wearing a bullet-proof vest, gas mask and riot helmet, tossed in two canisters of crowd-control gas and began firing at random. He was arrested without further incident in possession of a rifle, a shotgun and a handgun; another handgun was found in his white Hyundai, which was parked behind the theater.”

  • Though no one could have anticipated such a violent act, an official statement was released, “Warner Bros and the film-makers are deeply saddened to learn about this shocking incident,” the studio said a statement. “We extend our sincere sympathies to the families and loved ones of the victims at this tragic time.”
  • How far will people go to make fantasy a reality? and why? …
  • The Dark Knight Rises premiere cancelled after Colorado shooting,” The Guardian. 2012. http://gu.com/p/3972n

Viral Marketing Through Social Media Sites

by: Michelle Emory

In May 2007, a marketing campaign for the movie ‘The Dark Knight’ was set into action.  42 Entertainment, an American company specializing in creating and producing alternate reality games, set to work in creating one of the most intricate marketing campaigns to date.

This video provides a great summary of the campaign (way more enjoyable/exciting than reading my rendition, which I have mostly reduced/deleted due to it’s length).

Source: YouTube

A website was launched featuring the fictional political campaign of character Harvey Dent.  Fans could see trailers by earning them through emails.  A “vandalized version of the Harvey Dent site encouraged fans to send emails in order to slowly remove pixels, revealing the first official image of the Joker.  The campaign even went as far as to send fans on scavenger hunts to unlock teaser trailers, as well as images of the Joker.  The film’s website was…

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It’s not who we are underneath, but what we do that defines us…

To go off my capitalism post I’d like to talk about the consumer society surrounding Batman. Bob Canes concept first appeared in 1939 in DC’s detective comics #27 (Batman).  Since then Batman has become a cultural icon, the concept has been licensed and adapted into a variety of media including television programs, stage shows, film and radio but it does not stop there. You can own Batman in more ways then that, come on this is a consumer society we live in remember? You can also have Batman in a wide variety of merchandise. Such as figurines, toys, video games, plushies, posters, costumes and clothing! You would not believe the clothing (or maybe you would) but as someone who works in retail, I can tell you that manufacturers took very little time between the release of each Nolan Batman movie, to come out with products that have Batman’s face on it. I’m talking everywhere from slippers to pajamas to t-shirts to hats. One could literally be head to toe Batman without wearing the costume, because wearing a costume every day isn’t socially acceptable, but this is… right?

“When Marx undertook his critique of the capitalistic mode of production, this mode was in its infancy. Marx directed his efforts in such a way as to give them prognostic value. He went back to the basic conditions underlying capitalistic production and through his presentation showed what could be expected of capitalism in the future. The result was that one could expect it not only to exploit the proletariat with increasing intensity…” (Benjamin).

The sales of Batman product rely on the fact that someone is selling and reselling product for gain and media is the weapon deployed by society in order to have gain.  Almost anything these days that becomes a hit or a fad is blown completely out of proportion by the media. When was it ever cool to be a nerd? Was it not the nerd that got picked on all these years, was the nerd not a classic victim of the bully? I believed this to be the case. Yet suddenly it is cool to read comics and watch Batman. Being a comic nerd can be cool, even sexy! So how did this happen? Via the media. The media decided to buy into the idea of Batman and in turn society and the proletariat bought into it as well.

“In principle a work of art has always been reproducible. Man-made artifacts could always be imitated by men. Replicas were made by pupils in practice of their craft, by masters for diffusing their works, and, finally, by third parties in the pursuit of gain” (Benjamin).

Every remake of Batman has been precisely that, in the pursuit of gain. Allow me to show you a brief history of The Batman. When Bob Kane’s version of Batman was running dry in 1964 DC was going to kill of Batman all together. That was until Julius Schwartz stepped in and decided to reinvent Batman in order to keep him alive. Fallowing this, in 1966 a television series starring Adam West was released and the success increased sales throughout the comic book industry and Batman reached sales close to 900, 000 copies (Batman). But as Julius Schwartz noted, “When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books” (Batman). Fallowing Julius Schwartz’s lead was varies artists including Frank Miller who brought back the dark side of Batman in 1986’s Batman: The Dark Knight Returns. In 1988, DC comics utilized the media to get the public involved doing a call in and vote for as to whether or not Jason aka Robin should be killed off (Batman). 1989 was the release of Tim Burton‘s Batman which brought back the public attention and brought in millions of dollars at the box office, and millions more in merchandising (Batman).All leading up to Christopher Nolan’s trilogy starting in 2005 and ending in 2012.

People want to believe in the Batman, they want him to be real and the media preys on these people. They create this merchandise so that you can have and hold Batman, dress like Batman BE Batman. The idea is to make him as real as possible “…the desire of contemporary masses to bring things “closer” spatially and humanly, which is just as ardent as their bent toward overcoming the uniqueness of every reality and accepting its reproduction” (Benjamin).

If this wasn’t true, if media is not deploying a weapon to rake in some money then why was Frank Miller’s Batman: The Dark Knight Returns redesigned in 2002 for resale? Why did Christopher Nolan dedicate a decade toward redoing Batman in film? Why do I see children who have never read a comic, or even been allowed to watch a Christopher Nolan Batman movie (due to the obvious rating) wearing Batman logo’s and dressing up for Halloween as super heroes?  It is because the media has made Batman something bigger, Batman has become a possibility because he isn’t “super” he has no powers, he is a man with money and knowledge, and technically this is possible. And he is popular and being popular means making money, right? Fact is we are a consumer society, capitalism is in full swing and it all happens subconsciously, everyone buys into this often without even realizing, or if they do without caring.

Batman Merchandise

Batman Merchandise

and more merchandise

and more merchandise

OH and if that is not enough proof for you, please take a brief moment and click here, and you will get another glimpse at the kind of people who are helping keep the gears of this consumer society a-turnin’.

  • “Batman,” Wikipedia. 2012.
  • Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Marxists Internet Archive. Web. 29 Nov. 2012.
  • Miller, Frank. Batman: the Dark Knight returns. New York, N.Y.: DC Comics, 2002. Print.
  • The Dark Knight Rises. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perf. Christian Bale, Anne Hathaway. Warner Bros., 2012. DVD.
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Cinematic Faith

Director Christopher Nolan on set
Director Christopher Nolan on set

I found an article online titled Cinematic Faith, within this article was an interview between director Christopher Nolan and journalist Scott Foundas. Not only did I find this interview intriguing due to my interest in Batman, but because I found it to be unlike any other interview. Not only are the questions asked unlike most that simply inquire into irrelevant information such as, what inspired this film? Who is your real life hero? Why choose Christian Bale? Instead they are more in depth and thought provoking. Christopher Nolan’s answers are perfectly to match, they are detailed and serious. His love for this trilogy and Batman’s history is evident. His ten years working on these films show his research and knowledge as he is fully aware of the political and religious aspects incorporated into the film. He talks about how this is a entirely different type of cinematic experience which has brought seriousness, darkness and realism into the Hollywood forever changing the way superhero stories can be told. And Furthermore, he explains the reasons behind his actions on some topics that may have interested you. For example, during The Dark Knight Rises Christopher Nolan made the decision to play “Star Spangled Banner” from start to end, and I loved it but I could never quite put my finger on it to say why it was so… perfect, for that scene.  Every time I watch this movie the suspense builds inside of me as this song goes on and you just know that something big is about to happen. Nolan described it perfectly as, “the scope and scale of the action is built from smaller pieces that snowball together so you’re cross-cutting, which I love doing, and trying to find a rhythm in conjunction with the music and the sound effects, so you’re building and building tension continuously over a long sustained part of the film, and not releasing that until the very last frame…In The Dark Knight Rises, from the moment the music and sound drop and the little boy starts singing “The Star-Spangled Banner,” it’s kind of like the gloves are coming off.”

As mentioned in my Post The Dark Knight I discuss Nolan’s use of realism, how he turned Batman into a more realistic version that we could all relate too, and this quote below explains how accurate I really was. Though, he uses the term “relatable” instead, he is saying how he chose to make Batman darker, but in the same way wanted you to be able to imagine yourself walking down a street with the Dark Knight suddenly swooping overhead.

The overall tone of the film is realistic compared to most comic-book- derived movies.The world around Batman is plausible and not particularly stylized or exaggerated.

The term “realism” is often confusing and used sort of arbitrarily. I suppose “relatable” is the word I would use. I wanted a world that was realistically portrayed, in that even though outlandish events may be taking place, and this extraordinary figure may be walking around these streets, the streets would have the same weight and validity of the streets in any other action movie. So they’d be relatable in that way. And so the more texturing and layering that we could get into this film, the more tactile it was, the more you would feel and be excited by the action. So just on a technical level, I really wanted to take on this idea of what I call the tactile quality. You want to really understand what things would smell like in this world, what things would taste like, when bones start being crunched or cars start pancaking. You feel these things in a way because the world isn’t intensely artificial and created by computer graphics, which result in an anodyne, sterile quality that’s not as exciting. For me that was about making the character more special. If I can believe in that world because I recognize it and can imagine myself walking down that street, then when this extraordinary figure of Batman comes swooping down in this theatrical costume and presenting this very theatrical aspect, that’s going to be more exciting to me.

In my post Introduce a Little Anarchy, I am discussing the “bad guys” and their similarities but what I did not touch on was their religious view and their differences. Here is a little taste of that.

And then you have the anarchy of The Joker, and in The Dark Knight Rises you come back with the followers of Ra’s Al Ghul who are trying to enact his plans by masking it as class warfare.

Class warfare but also in a militaristic, dictatorial approach. If you look at the three of them, Ra’s Al Ghul is almost a religious figure, The Joker is the anti-religious figure, the anti-structure anarchist. And then Bane comes in as a military dictator. And military dictators can be ideologically based, they can be religiously based, or a combination thereof.

In my post Introduce a Little Anarchy, I wanted to touch on politics within Gotham. What made this difficult was that Gotham is obviously a made up city so deciding its position on the political spectrum was all hypothetical. Yet the “bad guys” certainly expressed  political views that appeared left-winged via their actions and the rest of the film appeared to be right winged. At the same time, I mentioned that it seemed more about expressing and exposing some of the good and bad of each style. It satisfying me to know that Christopher Nolan did not intend this film to be “politically specific” and that it’s open to interpretation. I believe that to be the perfect approach as any specific political influence would seem inappropriate and there are very clearly two different views, not a specific one. To say that it was one or the other would be inaccurate and would have as he said, “ignoring huge chunks of the film.”

It was interesting to see the spectrum of reactions to The Dark Knight Rises, with some arguing that it was a sort of a neoconservative or very right-wing film and others seeing it as being a radical leftist film. And one of the things the film seems to be talking about is how easily the political rhetoric of one extreme can be co-opted by the complete opposite extreme.

Absolutely, and then you get into the philosophical question: if an energy or a movement can be co-opted for evil, then is that a critique of the movement itself? All of these different interpretations are possible. What was surprising to me is how many pundits would write about their political interpretation of the film and not understand that any one political interpretation necessarily involved ignoring huge chunks of the film. And it made me feel good about where we had positioned the film, because it’s not intended to be politically specific. It would be absurd to try to make a politically specific film about this subject matter, where you’re actually trying to pull the shackles off everyday life and go to a more frightening place where anything is possible. You’re off the conventional political spectrum, so it’s very subject to interpretation and misinterpretation.

When I saw this question in the interview I was very excited to see what the response would be considering I (while scared to death) posted my theory on the political aspects of this film in Introduce a little Anarchy.  In doing so I included how I believed Nolan to have utilized sympathetic elements when depicting the “bad guys” in order to draw in OWS types. It was more of a “food for thought theory”, I never believe that Nolan did this specifically as the film is not intended to be political, but more so that it simply fell under this desire to “pull the shackles off everyday life” and make things more frightening. As Nolan said below, this was written before the actual protest took place, but during the banking crisis of 2008 when everyone was in fear of the “what-if scenarios”. Therefore, as said “a lot of the ideas underlying the film come from a situation in which the economy was in crisis” drawing in people of a left-wing perspective.

When you were starting to write The Dark Knight Rises, were you thinking about what was going on with the economy and movements like Occupy Wall Street, in terms of the depiction of society on the brink of a kind of second American Revolution?

We were writing years before Occupy Wall Street, and we were actually shooting at the time that it arose, but I think the similarities come from Occupy being a response to the banking crisis in 2008. We were sitting there in a world where, on the news, we were constantly being presented with what-if scenarios. Like: “What if all the banks go bust?” “What if the stock market is worth nothing?” These questions are terrifying, and we were taking the view that we should be writing about what’s most frightening. We came to the idea of how in America we take for granted a stability to our class and social structure that has never been sustained elsewhere in the world. In other words, this sort of thing has happened in countries all over the world, why not here? And why not now? So a lot of the ideas underlying the film come from a situation in which the economy was in crisis and therefore even on the news questions are being asked—unthinkable questions about what might happen in society.

Within a few of my posts I was touching on how Frank Miller’s, Batman: The Dark Knight Returns Batman is often seen as a vigilante as apposed to a hero, or a watchful protector. Both the comic and the film The Dark Knight Rises express Batman’s dark side. I included this interview question because I believe it does a good job of explaining Bruce Wayne’s multiple identified and how they are all necessary in order to compose him as both Bruce and Batman successfully. While also revolutionizing the way Batman appears on film, just as Frank Miller revolutionized the way Batman was seen in comics.

Something you seized on is the fragmented identity of Bruce Wayne/Batman, which is certainly a central part of the character, but it’s much more present in these films. At the end of The Dark Knight on some level he senses that maybe he’s become the villain of the story, that maybe he has too much blood on his hands, and that Batman should go away and leave Gotham alone. Those are dark areas that no Batman movie really ventured into before, and they seem related to an interest you have in the dual or sometimes more than dual nature of identity.

It’s paradoxical, but in order to get at the duality of Bruce Wayne, we had to make him into three people. I sat down with Christian early on and we decided there’s the private Bruce Wayne, who only Alfred and Rachel really get to see; the public Bruce Wayne, which is this mask he puts on of this decadent playboy; and then the creature of Batman that he’s created to strike back at the world. By making him into these three aspects, you really start to see the idea that you have a private person who is wrestling with all kinds of demons and trying to make something productive out of that. I think the most interesting moment to me that Christian pulls off in Batman Begins is the scene at the party when he pretends to be drunken Bruce Wayne being rude to his guests to get them out of the place, to save them from Ra’s Al Ghul’s men. But there’s some truth to it which comes through, and you can see that in his performance. It’s an act, but Bruce Wayne as an actor is drawing on something that he really feels. It’s quite bitter, and I like the layers that Christian was able to put in there.

I would also like to link you all to this blog, The Von Weiland File as it was this blog that led me to this interview. And also because, they said, “December 4 I will be posting an my interpretation of The Dark Knight Rises to coincide with its release date. You can expect it to be heavy on the politics.”  And I find it interesting that everyone is so interested in the political side of Batman when Nolan blatantly says “All of these different interpretations are possible. What was surprising to me is how many pundits would write about their political interpretation of the film and not understand that any one political interpretation necessarily involved ignoring huge chunks of the film” and “It would be absurd to try to make a politically specific film about this subject matter.” I mean call me hypocritical, as I touched on the political side as well, but hopefully I successfully accomplished my goal of saying how it wasn’t politically specific as well … and if not then I’m just another pundit I suppose…but regardless I am interested in seeing this analysis especially since they have read the same interview as I, and are posting after reading it, as apposed to prior to like myself.

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Madness, as you know, is like gravity. All it takes is a little push!

American Political Spectrum

American Political Spectrum

Capitalism is an economic system (as opposed to a system of government) that is based on private ownership of the means of production and the creation of goods or services for profit (Oxford English Dictionary). If placed on the political spectrum capitalism would land around center-right. Capital accumulation is a central element of capitalism and competitive markets are also usually implemented on the basis of capitalism. There are multiple variants of capitalism, including laissez-fair, welfare capitalism and state capabilities (Capitalism).

A person who possesses capital assets has capital; they are someone who invests for profit in financial and business enterprises and are an advocate of capitalism or of an economic system based on capitalism (Oxford English Dictionary). A capitalist also refers to the class who own factors of production and derive an income based on capital gains, for example buying something and re-selling it for a profit which you may keep (Oxford English Dictionary). Which leads me to the American Project, drawing people in from around the world who wish to re-invent themselves in America in an attempt to spread democracy and capitalism around the world. This gets messy when one realizes that you cannot have democracy without free press and these can often conflict. Yet the message of the “American Dream” is still spread through the use of Hollywood. Interestingly enough The Dark Knight series seems to draw some attention to this idea itself with its inclusion of political views. Though not necessarily one in particular, as it is not a political movie or comic it is simply fiction, but they both remain very american, as superhero’s themselves are an american invention.

Bruce Wayne is a man of capital; his “Wayne Enterprises” has made him a millionaire. Although Bruce Wayne grew up extremely wealthy he is also the most self-sacrificing character within the film regardless of being the richest therefore wealth is not a moral failing In The Dark Knight trilogies or in The Dark Knight Returns. It is a tool Bruce uses for good, he sinks his money into charity and into the tools required to act as Batman, in order to prevent crimes the state doesn’t protect under its monopoly. Which in turn gives back to the city as he tirelessly tries to save Gotham.

A little comic relief from the heavy stuff... and back to it!

A little comic relief from the heavy stuff… and back to it!

I believe Gotham City to politically be placed slightly center right, with the status quo. There is a slight social hierarchy, with Wayne as we said being a man of capital, but the city is also extremely corrupt, and because of this our “bad guys” believe this economically based, pro-capitalism society and government unfit and in need of change. Also explaining why Bane’s first attack on Gotham is the stock market.

For those of you who have not seen The Dark Knight Rise, which is Christopher Nolan’s Third (and final) Batman film, you may or may not have heard this quote from Anne Hathaway as Cat Woman, “…You’re all going to wonder how you could ever have thought you could live so large and leave so little for the rest of us.” It was leading us to believe that an extreme leftist revolution was about to take place, but as it turns out only the “bad guys” held the leftist views, and the overall moral was that rapidly switching from a pro-capitalism society would ultimately end in disaster.

The “bad guys” mainly being Ra’s Al Ghul, Scarecrow, The Joker, Bane, Cat Woman etc., within the Nolan trilogy are trying to lead a revolution in Gotham through the use of anarchy. They are attempting to destroy it and everyone within it so that they can build it back up again anew. All in an attempt to upset the established order as The Joker says:

“…you know what I’ve noticed? Nobody panics when things go “according to plan.” Even if the plan is horrifying! If, tomorrow, I tell the press that, like, a gang banger will get shot, or a truckload of soldiers will be blown up, nobody panics, because it’s all “part of the plan.” But when I say that one little old mayor will die, well then everyone loses their minds! Introduce a little anarchy. Upset the established order, and everything becomes chaos. I’m an agent of chaos. Oh, and you know the thing about chaos? It’s fair!”

All these “bad guys” have one thing in common, they are all working under the same belief that the established order is flawed, and that they are going to fix it through their chaos and crimes, or should I say expose the flaws, not fix. It then becomes Batman’s job to prevent the crimes and stop the “bad guys” before Gotham is destroyed, leaving the citizens with a taste of the exposure without the total destruction.

In The Dark Knight Rises, Bane reads aloud Commissioner Gordon’s letter to the citizens of Gotham, and explains how Harvey Dent tried to kill Gordon’s son and Batman took the fall so that the city wouldn’t lose hope. Bane uses the truth as a tool to turn the people against their law enforcement by making them believe that the Harvey Dent Act was a lie and that these people have been wrongly imprisoned along with it. Then with a general vote the criminals are released; immediately causing chaos.

Furthermore when Batman has The Joker and refers to him as “garbage who kills for money,” The joker retorts with:

“Don’t talk like one of them. You’re not! Even if you’d like to be. To them, you’re just a freak, like me! They need you right now, but when they don’t, they’ll cast you out, like a leper! You see, their morals, their code, it’s a bad joke. Dropped at the first sign of trouble. They’re only as good as the world allows them to be. I’ll show you. When the chips are down, these… these civilized people, they’ll eat each other. See, I’m not a monster. I’m just ahead of the curve.”

Sadly, The Joker is right. Batman is dropped at the first sign of trouble and he takes the brunt for Harvey’s actions. Even in Frank Miller’s The Dark Knight Returns he is seen as a vigilante for taking the law into his own hands in ways the law enforcement cannot. Moreover the civilized people do turn on each other as well, this is proven in The Dark Knight Rises when Bane releases the inmates and it becomes every man for them self. As well, in The Dark Knight Returns, throughout pages 179-181 we are seeing news clips of people trying to justifying their horrific actions towards one another based on their fear and panic, as if it was good enough reason to kill a priest or trample others.

In The Dark Knight Rises both Bane and Cat Woman wanted to overthrow the existing order. The difference between the former and the latter was that Bane reveled in the resulting destruction, while Cat Woman repented it. I am lead to believe that this was all for cinematic effect, to have subtlety and ambiguity rather than the clichéd ‘good guys’ and ‘bad guys’, hence why I have used the term “bad guys” in quotations this entire time. Regardless of their evil plotting, there are sympathetic sides to each character. The Joker with his sad tales of how he got this smile, Bane growing up in poverty trapped within that cell, and Cat Women acting as a Robin Hood figure who steals from the rich to give to the poor. I believe that Nolan included this sympathetic element on purpose to draw in the OWS types (Occupy Wall street, a name given to those protesting for leftist views, their slogan was “we are the 99% addressing the growing income inequality and wealth distribution in the U.S between the wealthiest 1% and the rest of the population” [Occupy Wall Street]) only to turn the tables on them and argue that the destruction of the current order leads to a worse result than the status quo. This is shown when Bane attacks the stock market, then leads a group of terrorist (criminals and civilians) to rebel against the government of Gotham.

Food for thought : “If I am not for myself, who will be? If I am only for myself, what am I?” – Hillel, Pirke Avot

  • “Capitalism,” Wikipedia. 2012.
  • “capitalism, n.2”. OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. 2 December 2012 ;.
  • “capitalist, n. and adj.”. OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. 2 December 2012 ;.
  • Miller, Frank. Batman: the Dark Knight returns. New York, N.Y.: DC Comics, 2002. Print.
  • “Occupy Wall Street,” Wikipedia. 2012.
  • The Dark Knight Rises. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perf. Christian Bale, Anne Hathaway. Warner Bros., 2012. DVD.
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There’s a storm coming Mr. Wayne…

The Dark Knight

Batman: The Dark Knight Returns
Written By: Frank Miller
The Dark Knight Rises
Directed By: Christopher Nolan
Harvey Dent believes his disfiguration revealed a hidden evil side. Bruce pays for Harvey’s reconstruction surgery and psychiatrists allow him to be re-entered into society. He returns to crime and is captured by Batman.  (Miller,  15-17 & 26) Dent becomes “Two Face” when he loses faith in the law and resorts to the only way he deems fair, “chance”. Yet they allow Harvey to remain a “hero” to maintain hope for law enforcement in Gotham
We are aware that the Mayor is confident and that he is forcing Gordon into retirement, unsure as to who his replacement is. ( Miller, 11 & 59) It is suggested that “the mayor is laying him (Gordon) off in the spring”
Selina works for Kyle Escort and is dressed as Wonder Woman. Selina is Cat woman.
Batman is gone for nearly 10 years (Miller, 11) Batman is gone for 7 years
Children think Batman is a myth (Miller, 11) The children are all still holding faith in the Batman
“write them a cheque”  says Bruce to Alfred (Miller, 119) Forgets to write cheques for orphanage because his company isn’t making money since he locked himself away for 7 years
Master Bruce. Whatever happened to your mustache? – Alfred ( Miller, 20) Bruce has been locked away for a long time; his facial hair has grown out. Upon his return to Batman, he shaves it off.
“….Though given your social schedule of late, the prospects of there being a next generation…” (Miller, 21) Alfred  tells Wayne he went to Florence, and while he was there he imagined seeing Bruce across the table, with a wife, happy, and though they never spoke it was enough.
Comic shows Bruce’s visions of his parents murder and his mothers pearls getting ripped off (Miller, 24) Includes the pearls in the film when Cat Women steals them
Mechanical arm splint (Miller, 53) Mechanical leg split
Rookie goes to shoot at Batman, “go to the car kid” (Miller, 40) Rookie goes to shoot at Batman and is told to put it away
There is a flying vehicle shaped like a bat (Miller, 182) Batman has a flying vehicle called “The Bat”
“it’s still dark in Gotham city, it’s still winter in august” ( Miller, 184) It is winter in Gotham as soon as Bane takes over
Nuclear Warfare between Soviets and America (Miller, 165) America creates nuclear weapon “fusion project” into a nuclear bomb
People turn against one another almost immediately (Miller, 179-181) Bane’s threats and promises strike fear in the people of Gotham forcing them to choose sides and turn on one another
The Batmobile and motorcycle is used (Miller, 77 & 54) “The Tumbler” and the motorcycle is used
Superman stops the Nuclear weapon and nearly dies. ( Miller, 166) Batman stops the nuclear weapon and “supposedly” dies.

The relationship between Frank Miller’sBatman: The Dark Knight Returns and director Christopher Nolan’s Batman Trilogy (specifically The Dark Knight Rises but also, The Dark Knight) are rather obvious. Frank Miller prides himself on the crime noir genre as seen through his art work in The Dark Knight Returns (and his famous movie, Sin City). Nolan appears to have drawn from the dark version of Batman that Frank Miller created and simplified the story by breaking it down into three parts, making it more realistic to the viewers. There is also his obvious decision to utilize the title “The Dark Knight” which in itself appears to be representative of a cold, senile man (though slightly more optimistic than Millers version) with a grudge that he will never truly shake.

A film-noir is a cinematic term primarily used to describe Hollywood crime dramas. Often they emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations (Film Noir). Film-noirs were originally created as a high contrast black and white film and the term neo-noir has also been used to represent modern day film-noirs that utilize many of the same elements but with updated themes or visual elements.  Modern versions of film noirs also incorporate colour while maintaining a majority of night scenes or scenes held in dim light. There is a range of possible plots such as the law-abiding citizen lured into a life of crime or simply a victim of circumstance. I chose these two as my examples as they relate to Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight Rises (and the trilogy as whole) as well as Frank Miller’s, The Dark Knight Returns.

The Dark Knight Rises, by Christopher Nolan utilizes low-key lighting schemes and dramatic shadows like many classic film-noirs. Its convoluted story lines and use of flashbacks that at times disrupt the narrative are all signifiers of a neo-noir (Film Noir). Batman being both a part of The League of Shadows and a character that hides in the shadows of the night sets the stage perfectly for this style of film and his character traits make him an ideal neo-noir protagonist. Batman is filled with existential bitterness, the unnecessary death of his parents by criminals lead to his loss of faith in society; thus resulting in his creation of Batman so as to take back control of Gotham in a non violent manor.

Generally a requirement of the protagonist is to be a part of a heist or implicated in con games or murder conspiracies (Film Noir). In The Dark Knight Batman is involved in The Joker’s con-games by force. Not only is he usually involved in them via his attempt to prevent them but this time The Joker literally makes Batman a part of them.  The Joker forces Batman to choose between two locations one being Rachel’s and one being Harvey’s, knowing only one can be saved he must make a decision. So who to choose- his love or the cities hero? This decision of course is made more complicated by The Jokers games.

With this being said, crime is also another tell tale sign of a film-noir, often even murderous crimes; all of which occurs within Nolan’s Batman trilogy(Film Noir). Gotham is a city struck by crime, greed and murder and is inherently corrupt therefore it requires a hero. Even though their true hero is the Batman, as we all know, “he’s the hero Gotham deserves, but not the one it needs right now. So, we’ll hunt him, because he can take it. Because he’s not our hero. He’s a silent guardian. A watchful protector. A Dark Knight.” Gotham needs more than Batman, it is a city that cannot afford to lose faith and hope in the law. For that reason Batman takes the fall for Harvey’s murders, once more proving his dedication to the city. Crime is also what leads us to our secondary character Jack, who is responsible for the crime investigations. He plays the role of the concerned amateur cop more interested in learning and protecting than investigating. Over all, the convoluted story line, use of flashbacks, murder, external bitterness and a life in the shadows fighting crime show us that Christopher Nolan’s Batman trilogies are in fact neo-noir films (as if the Title “The Dark Knight” wasn’t enough of a giveaway.)

I tried to find a clip that showed the shadowy darkness surrounding Gotham in Nolan’s trilogy as well as the corruption and crime within in the city of Gotham.

Similarly, Frank Miller uses a book-noir theme throughout his comic via pictures that are grotesque and dark. Unlike most comics that sexualize women, utilize bright colours and are often directed towards young adults, Frank Millers Comic touch on societal issues such as stereotypes, controversies ethics, neoliberalism and capitalism within American Culture. His anger is evident as he writes this comic (also using more text than the average comic would) and it is this anger and style of artwork that lead to a book-noir. Batman is once more the protagonist filled with existential bitterness, his parent’s death is a constant flashback we as the readers experience. Slowly we are unraveling more information about his bitterness towards society and ultimately his flashbacks are what drive him to become Batman once more. His disdain for crime and the turn of society causes him to act out more violently than your average version of Batman and we are even lead to believe he may even have murdered someone, though this is never proven. Batman is both surrounded by and drawn into con-games, once again by The Joker (who even frames Batman as his own murderer). And once more the society see’s Batman as a vigilante as opposed to a hero. Carrie Kelly plays the role of a concerned amateur detective seeking out Batman (while dressed as Robin) and eventually proving herself worthy of assisting him. Overall the tone is notably downbeat as Frank Miller addresses his issues with society through print culture. The use of dark and grotesque images along with a protagonist who has lost hope for a corrupted society taken over by criminals is the perfect set up for a book-noir.

“re-imagining of a superhero”…”Dark Knight specifically influenced every Batman to come since.”

This is a clip I have selected to try and show the reckless behavior of Bruce Wayne. The darkness, apathy and crime in Gotham, driving Bruce to a point where he can no longer resist being Batman again. All which when combined creates the book-noir.

Fun Fact: Film noir is often associated with an urban setting, and a few cities in particular—Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, and Chicago (Film Noir). Funny enough, Batman The Dark Knight is filmed in New York and Chicago (and Pittsburgh) and Gotham was a nickname given to New York City by Bob Kane when he was creating Batman.

I also found this blog related to the noir topic, that discusses some of the similarities between Blade Runner and The Dark Knight called Blade Runner meets The Dark Knight. Very Interesting! Take a look. 

  • Miller, Frank. Batman: the Dark Knight Returns. New York, N.Y.: DC Comics, 2002. Print.
  • The Dark Knight Rises. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perf. Christian Bale, Anne Hathaway. Warner Bros., 2012. DVD.
  • “Film Noir” Wikipedia. November 28, 2012.
  • “The Dark Knight Rises ‘Legend’ Trailer” Youtube, 2012.
  • “The Dark Knight Returns (2012) Sneak Peak” Youtube, 2012.
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